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1. Cohen MS, Chen YQ, McCauley M, et al. Antiretroviral therapy for the prevention of HIV-1 Transmission. New England Journal of Medicine. 2016;0(July 18):1-10.


2. Del Romero J, Castilla J, Hernando V, Rodríguez C, García S. Combined antiretroviral treatment and heterosexual transmission of HIV-1: cross sectional and prospective cohort study. British Medical Journal. 2010;340:c2205.


3. Frieden TR, Foti KE, Mermin J. Applying Public Health Principles to the HIV Epidemic—How Are We Doing? New England Journal of Medicine. 2015;373(23):2281-2287.


4. i-Base. Q&A on the PARTNER study: how to interpret the zero transmission results. 2016; Accessed 07/18/2016


5. Loutfy M, Tyndall M, Baril J-G, Montaner JS, Kaul R, Hankins C. Canadian consensus statement on HIV and its transmission in the context of criminal law. Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology. 2014;25(3):135-140.


6. Loutfy MR, Wu W, Letchumanan M, et al. Systematic review of HIV transmission between heterosexual serodiscordant couples where the HIV-positive partner is fully suppressed on antiretroviral therapy. PloS one. 2013;8(2):e55747.


7. Rodger AJ, Cambiano V, Bruun T, et al. Sexual activity without condoms and risk of HIV transmission in serodifferent couples when the HIV-positive partner is using suppressive antiretroviral therapy. Journal of the American Medical Association. 2016;316(2):171-181.


8. Vernazza P. HIV-infizierte Menschen ohne andere STD sind unter wirksamer antiretroviraler Therapie sexuell nicht infektiös. 2008.


9. Vernazza PL, Bernard EJ. HIV is not transmitted under fully suppressive therapy: The Swiss Statement – eight years later Swiss Med Weekly 2016;  Accessed Sept. 4, 2016, 146.


10. Rodger A et al. Risk of HIV transmission through condomless sex in gay couples with suppressive ART: the PARTNER2 study expanded results in gay men. 22nd International AIDS Conference, Amsterdam, abstract WEAX0104LB, 2018:  Accessed  August 1, 2018


11. Rodger, A. J., Cambiano, V., Bruun, et al. Risk of HIV transmission through condomless sex in serodifferent gay couples with the HIV-positive partner taking suppressive antiretroviral therapy (PARTNER): Final results of a multicentre, prospective, observational study. The Lancet 2019; 30418-0.


12. Bavinton B et al. (presenter Grulich A) HIV treatment prevents HIV transmission in male serodiscordant couples in Australia, Thailand and Brazil. 9th International AIDS Society Conference on HIV Science, Paris, abstract no TUAC0506LB, July 2017.


13. Collins, Simon. The evidence for U=U: why negligible risk is zero risk. Positive Person’s Forum, July 1, 2017. Glasgow.


14. Prevention Access Campaign. Undetectable=Untransmittable Primer Consensus Statement. 2016; Accessed Sept. 7, 2016.


15. Cairns, G. Zero transmissions means zero risk - PARTNER 2 study results announced. NAM aidsmap, July 24, 2018


16. AIDS Vancouver. In the News: Dr.  Julio Montaner’s TED Talk HPTN052 and What it Means to Be Undetectable. 2016; Accessed July 31, 2016.


17. Cohen MS, Chen YQ, McCauley M, et al. Prevention of HIV-1 infection with early antiretroviral therapy. New England Journal of Medicine. 2011;365(6):493-505.


18. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Prevention Benefits of HIV Treatment. 2015; Accessed July 31, 2016.


19. Avert. Treatment as Prevention (TasP). 2016; Accessed 06/23/16.


20. O'Connor J, Smith C, Lampe F, Johnson M, Sabin C, Phillips A. Rate of viral load failure over time in people on ART in the UK Collaborative HIV Cohort (CHIC) study. Journal of the International AIDS Society. 2014;17(4).


21. Panel on Antiretroviral Guidelines for Adults and Adolescents. Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in HIV-1-Infected Adults and Adolescents- Limitations to Treatment Safety and Efficacy Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy. 2014; Accessed June 30, 2016.


22. Cairns G. Viral Load and Transmission - a Factsheet for People with HIV. 2015; Accessed 06/23/16.


23. Cairns G. Viral Load and Transmission - a Fact Sheet for HIV-Negative People. 2015; Accessed 06/23/16.


24. Bujan L, Pasquier C. People living with HIV and procreation: 30 years of progress from prohibition to freedom? Human Reproduction. 2016;31(5):918-925.


25. Panel on Antiretroviral Guidelines for Adults and Adolescents. Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in HIV-1-Infected Adults and Adolescents - Viral Load Testing. 2014; Accessed June 30, 2016.


26. Mykhalovskiy E, Betteridge G, McLay D. Scientific research on the risk of the sexual transmission of HIV infection on HIV as a chronic and manageable infection. In, HIV Non-Disclosure and the Criminal Law: Establishing Policy Options for Ontario, 2010 (cited section updated 2013).  2013; Accessed September 4, 2016.


27. HIV Disclosure to Sexual Partners - An Overview. Resource Kit for Service Providers 2015; Accessed June 30, 2016.


28. Human Rights Campaign. What do I do If? 2016; Accessed August 1, 2016.


29. The Bmj, “U=U is a blessing: but only for patients with access to HIV treatment: an essay”, Tamás Bereczky;, Sept. 17, 2019.


30. Θετική Φωνή, U=U: H εξίσωση που τα αλλάζει όλα:



stop hiv stigma

"Zero transmissions

mean zero risk"

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